2015年1月16日 星期五

CA 0115 final notes

Working notes:

  1. 直接去資料庫裡面比對bible & the analects比較有收穫(bible, the analects)
  2. Li = cultural grammar compare to the ten commandments

 

Title of this study:

Applying Contrastive Analysis on Ideology for teaching high school students English through classic proverbs in Bible and lunyu, the Chinese analects

 

Introduction and Methods

During our life time, we made decisions and bear the results. Many times we made mistakes and only figured afterwards that we could avoid them beforehand. The ancient wisdom proverbs often serve as a functional tool to regulate our mind and temper.

Nonetheless, governors of all ages and around the world always try to implants the ideology that benefits the rulers. They have many useful tools including religion, church, laws, jails, punishments, schools, army, and most important of all, life sentence on economical disciplines.

I wish to bring forth some thoughts that would benefit our students from the classics of sages. In a hustle society where people are forced to work and live under regulation, they quarrel sometimes. They have different values, resulting in quarrels and degenerating democracy and ration. 

(Lit. Review here. I had notes in my zotero)

 

我認為,在基督教信仰裡面,這確實讓社會更趨向某種同一程度,而且有一種大家都能接受哪些事情、理性討論的默契。這麼說來,我們似乎有太多用商場大老闆封面的奇怪勵志書,但他們真的有為小老百姓著想嗎?我也覺得這些coined出來的東西很多是假的。我們並不會像是其他文化那樣崇尚智者,而是崇尚有錢的人。

根據人的成長時期來分類,可能遭遇到的問題,來看各時期的CA ideology需求是什麼。搭配我之前規劃的每個時期需要的英文能力。只是這次,我們要汲取的是英文中的一些ideology,這會讓各個時期的人需要的思想內容不同。我想到一點,每個時期的個體,比如國小國中高中,思考能力和成熟度不同,也就是說,適合汲取的內容和思想不同。也是因為這樣,所以適合讀的書也不同。

By needed encouragement, I categorized them into the following stages under the criteria: give them what they need most at that time. From the existing resource in Bible, we know that those proverbs are often categorized into encouragements for different moods/scenarios. I would apply similar strategy in making my material for CA in ideology between Chinese and English. I am specifically interested in providing Chinese learners the wise proverbs from other cultures. In a Chinese society, most people regard the words from wealthy men as the truth. But in my opinion, they only represent the ideology of a capitalist: enslaving and exploiting the workers. This is a dangerous path for young people because if they are educated the kind of ideology, they would not treat others fairly. Most important of all, most people would become employees in the future, believing in the capitalists’ words would result in unsuitable supply of ideology. We have seen too many best-sellers in the bookstore and the media is dominated by those with power. But the content would not encourage of supply one from their suffering and sorrow. As a teacher, I wish to give my students a channel to explore and navigate through the wisdom from other cultures.

Keywords: family relationship, independence, prospect on future, prospect on present

  • Elementary: choose friends, seize time 
  • Junior high: seize time, hope
  • Senior high: seize time, hope
  • College: seize time, hope
  • Work: balance life
  • Graduate School: choose mentor, 
  • Suffered: hope
  • Anger
  • By occupation:

Topic of sample lessons: “anger”

For elementary students:

I had discovered a useful tool to search for proper proverbs in Bible. It's easy to use. A screenshot of the website is presented here.

bible

I list out some of the items, and choose some of them to compare with Chinese proverbs in Analects (論語). Then we would ask the students to discuss some concrete examples in their life and the true story, news that they had read before.

 

羅馬書(Romans) 12:19-21

12:19
親愛的弟兄,不要自己伸冤,寧可讓步,聽憑主怒(或作:讓人發怒);因為經上記著:「主說:『伸冤在我;我必報應。』」
[KJV] Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

12:20
所以,「你的仇敵若餓了,就給他喫,若渴了,就給他喝;因為你這樣行就是把炭火堆在他的頭上。」
[KJV] Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.

  • 12:21
    你不可為惡所勝,反要以善勝惡。
    [KJV] Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.
  • 《論語/憲問》有人問孔子:“以德報怨,何如?”(譯文: 拿恩惠來回報怨恨,怎麼樣?) 孔子反問道:“何以報德?以直報怨,以德報德。”

歌羅西書(Colossians) 3:21

3:21
你們作父親的,不要惹兒女的氣,恐怕他們失了志氣。
[KJV] Fathers, provoke not your children to anger, lest they be discouraged.

以弗所書(Ephesians) 4:26

4:26
生氣卻不要犯罪;不可含怒到日落,
[KJV] Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath:

箴言(The Proverbs) 22:24-25

22:24
好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往;
[KJV] Make no friendship with an angry man; and with a furious man thou shalt not go:

22:25
恐怕你效法他的行為,自己就陷在網羅裏。
[KJV] Lest thou learn his ways, and get a snare to thy soul.

箴言(The Proverbs) 27:4

27:4
忿怒為殘忍,怒氣為狂瀾,惟有嫉妒,誰能敵得住呢?
[KJV] Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy?

箴言(The Proverbs) 16:32

16:32
不輕易發怒的,勝過勇士;治服己心的,強如取城。
[KJV] He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.

詩篇(The Psalms) 37:8

37:8
當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。
[KJV] Cease from anger, and forsake wrath: fret not thyself in any wise to do evil.

箴言(The Proverbs) 19:11

19:11
人有見識就不輕易發怒;寬恕人的過失便是自己的榮耀。
[KJV] The discretion of a man deferreth his anger; and it is his glory to pass over a transgression.

詩篇(The Psalms) 30:5

30:5
因為,他的怒氣不過是轉眼之間;他的恩典乃是一生之久。一宿雖然有哭泣,早晨便必歡呼。
[KJV] For his anger endureth but a moment; in his favour is life: weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning.

 

Ask the students, especially the junior and senior high students, to check on their Chinese textbook (esp. Analects 論語) and see if there are any similarities in the wise words in English classics? Since they have at least five hours of lecture for Chinese each week. This would greatly enhance their interest in learning similarity and difference between the two cultures. Although English has absorbed many words from other cultures, it is still a good tool to view the ideology from other places of the world. In a democratic trends nowadays, we are living in a society whose prototype springs from a society which values the importance of education and wisdom.

  

We learn a language not just to use it in our life, but to extract the ideas in it. It must contain the ideology from where the language was born, the people using it, and the religious belief it accompanied. We are likely to benefit from the wisdom and wise men in another distant cultures and times. Let us learn through the timeless words.

We need to set up some baselines for the choosing the proverbs and mottos. This would be easier for us to modularize the materials for all ages, assuring the consistency.

 

Another critical part to raise awareness in our society, is to remind people the heritage of wisdom in our society. People shall find teachers everywhere in their life. Teachers are not confined to the people who only teach at schools. I believe this will lessen the violence and ignorance of the society. Parents often take teachers as care givers of the day. But this is simply not the only function of them.

“老師”or “夫子””師父”  is not simply an equivalence of teacher or master, mentor . It encompasses more meanings in it, and asks the students to respect the authority of the wise man. I have seen a similar case in Jewish community, “Rabbi.” But nowadays in Chinese culture, we seem to lost our respect on wise man and the authority on all genre of masters.

LunYu Book 1 (學而第一)

【十六章】子曰、不患人之不己知、患不知人也。

CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men.'

 

LunYu Book 9 (子罕第九)

【廿二章】子曰、後生可畏、焉知來者之不如今也、四十五十而無聞焉、斯 亦不足畏也已。

CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect.'

 

 

 

Michael Jordan

  • 在我職業籃球生涯中,有超過9000球沒投進,輸了近300場球賽,有26次,我被託付執行最後一擊的致勝球,而我卻失手了,我的生命中充滿了一次又一次的失敗,正因如此,我成功。
    • 原文:I've missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I've lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I've been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I've failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.
  • 我從未害怕過失敗。
    • 原文:I've never been afraid to fail.
  • 因為每個人在某些方面都會發生失敗,所以我能夠接受失敗,但我不能接受沒有嘗試。
    • 原文:I can accept failure, everyone fails at something. But I can't accept not trying.
  • 有些人想要它發生,有些人希望它能發生,其他人則用創造使它發生。
    • 原文:Some people want it to happen, some wish it would happen, others make it happen.
  • 能力可以贏得比賽,但團隊才能獲得冠軍。
    • 原文:Talent wins games, but teamwork wins championships


    John F. Kennedy

    • "Ask not what your country can do for you --ask what you can do for your country." (語譯: 「不要問國家可以為你做什麼,你應該要問自己可以為國家做什麼。」,全句為:縱觀人類歷史長河,危機時刻有幸擔當捍衛自由大任的人們並非多數。我不願逃避責任--我樂於承擔。我不相信誰能避開現實。我們為事業所盡的力量、忠誠和奉獻將照亮這個國家和所有為之服務的人們——其光芒也將照亮世界。所以,我親愛的美國人,不要問你的國家能為你做什麼,問你能為你的國家做什麼。我親愛的世界人民,不要問美國能為你做什麼,問我們大家能為人類的自由做什麼。出處: 1961年1月20日的講話 )
    • "We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."

    Martin Luther King, Jr.

    “I have a dream”

    • 我有一個夢,夢想這國家要高舉並履行其信條的真正涵義:「我們信守這些不言自明的真理:人人生而平等」。
      我有一個夢,我夢想有朝一日,在喬治亞的紅山上,昔日奴隸的兒子和昔日奴隸主的兒子能夠同坐一處,共敘兄弟情誼。
      我有一個夢,有朝一日,我的四個孩子將生活在一個不以膚色而是以品行來評判一個人優劣的國度裡。我今天就有這樣一個夢想。
    • I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

      I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

      I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

      I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

      I have a dream today!

      I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

      I have a dream today!

      I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together."2

    • 智慧加上品格才是教育真正的目標。 (Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of real education. )
      • 手段代表了在形成之中的理想和進行之中的目的,人們無法通過邪惡的手段來達到美好的目的。因為手段是種子,目的是樹。
    • 我們必須接受失望,因為它是有限的,但千萬不可失去希望,因為它是無限的。 (We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope. )

    Discussion and Conclusion

    This is a simple sample on how ideology can be compared and taught through topics. During my literature review I encountered a paper discussing the American propaganda in Vietnam, and I consider such policy driven educational or media content may cause greater chaos for younger learners. At first I was trying to make a good comparison on the similarities and differences on the ideologies. But soon I realized the action of choosing the representative items is controlled by the ideology of the chooser himself-that is, me, the instructor.

    I started this project with a good purpose, but I walk away with the frustration on defining “what’s needed for younger students?” I figure out for the dilemma for those who chose the teaching material with strong ideology. They must either strongly believe in them (even though the ideology itself might be totally malicious), or chose them for some unwilling reasons.

    Advantages:

    The students would benefit from uniform and consistent ideological material.

    Disadvantages:

    1. some sexist language / out of date ideology must be filtered out. But under what criteria?
    2. cultural hegemony
    3. unitary way of education may result in ideology control (concept by Louis Althussar’s State Apparatus)

    Our generations of children still need better learning materials with good intention on ideology. Ideology and inspiration are passed down through words and languages. They are the essential components for building up a strong person and a strong country. This would be a big questions for every material developer to think upon.

     

    References:

    1. Alsup, J. (2003). English Education Students and Professional Identity Development: Using Narrative and Metaphor to Challenge Preexisting Ideologies. Pedagogy: Critical Approaches To Teaching Literature, Language, Composition, And Culture, 3(2), 277-280.
    2. Cozy, D. (2010). Philip Seargeant: The Idea of English in Japan: Ideology and the Evolution of a Global Language. Applied Linguistics, 31(5), 737-740.
    3. Kobayashi, Y. (2013). Europe versus Asia: foreign language education other than English in Japan's higher education. Higher Education, 66(3), 269-281. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9603-7
    4. Razfar, A., & Rumenapp, J. C. (2012). Language ideologies in English learner classrooms: critical reflections and the role of explicit awareness. Language Awareness, 21(4), 347-368.
    5. Sewell, A. (2013). English as a lingua franca: ontology and ideology. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 67(1), 3-10.
    6. Wu, H. (2010). Beliefs about Learning English: A Study of Non-English Majors from a University in Taiwan. International Journal Of Learning, 17(4), 165-191.
    7. Zhang, J. (2011). Linguistic, Ideological, and Cultural Issues in Chinese and English Argumentative Writings. Journal Of Language Teaching & Research, 2(1), 73-80. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.1.73-80
    8. [幫補 @ 聖經金句 :: 痞客邦 PIXNET ::](http://godbible.pixnet.net/blog/category/1507924)
    9. [聖經工具](http://efcev.org/BibleTools.asp)
    10. [名人名言/人生 - 實用查詢](http://tw.18dao.net/%E5%90%8D%E4%BA%BA%E5%90%8D%E8%A8%80/%E4%BA%BA%E7%94%9F
    11. [論語 - 中國哲學書電子化計劃](http://ctext.org/analects/zh)  (with English translation)
    12. [Category:People by occupation - Wikiquote](http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Category:People_by_occupation)
    13. [分類:職業 - 維基語錄,自由的名人名言錄](http://zh.wikiquote.org/wiki/Category:%E8%81%8C%E4%B8%9A)
    14. [Lun Yu - Wikibooks, open books for an open world](http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Lun_Yu)